Whole grains are cereal grains that retain the endosperm, cereal germ and bran whereas the refined grains retain only the endosperm. Whole grains are natural sources of proteins and carbohydrates. The bran and the germ are the main source of Vitamin E, B, zinc, manganese, magnesium, selenium, copper and iron. When the whole grains are milled the bran and the germ leaving only the starchy endosperm. So it is better to eat whole grains than the flour.
Common whole grains are wheat, barley, oats, maize, brown rice, spelt, faro, emmer, einkorn, rye, kamut, millet, amaranth, quino, buck wheat and sprouted grains. All whole grains have some insoluble fiber (which is good for the digestive tract) and some soluble fiber (which helps promote healthy cholesterol level).
Whole grains also have phytochemicals like rutin that helps reduce the risk of heart disease. It was previously thought that the fiber in the whole grains helped reduce diseases but the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and complex carbohydrates have an important role in helping to fight against diseases. A whole grain diet reduces risk of colon cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure and coronary heart diseases. They provide nutrients for proper health maintenance.